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   2017| April-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 14, 2017

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DNA double-strand break repair in mammals
Monica Pandey, Sathees C Raghavan
April-June 2017, 8(2):93-97
Failure in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) could result in various disorders in mammals including cancer. Among various exogenous agents, radiation is one of the primary causes for induction of DSBs. Homologous recombination, nonhomologous end-joining, and a less efficient microhomology-mediated end-joining are responsible for repair of DSBs to ensure the genomic integrity and stability. This review highlights DNA damage response (DDR) induced following various insults to the genome and how the DNA repair mechanisms have evolved to restore genomic integrity. We also briefly discuss the potential therapeutic targets associated with DDR and DSB repair and novel inhibitors developed against such targets and their well-defined mechanism of action, which may increase sensitivity to traditional radio- and chemo-therapeutic modalities.
  4,976 658 5
Male breast cancer: An overview
Deepti Sharma, Garima Singh
April-June 2017, 8(2):98-102
Male breast cancer (MBC) is extremely rare, with an incidence of about 1% but the incidence has increased over the past 25 years. Most data on MBC come from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for MBC is not known. In the present article, we reviewed MBC and its risk factors, recommendations for screening and diagnosis, and management of patients with MBC.
  2,602 311 -
Radiation carcinogenesis: Mechanisms and experimental models - A meeting report
Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad
April-June 2017, 8(2):114-117
The first International School on Radiation Research (2017) of Society for Radiation Research on the theme of “Radiation Carcinogenesis: Mechanisms and Experimental Models” was held in the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India, during February 2–4, 2017. The school gathered basic/translational scientists and young researchers interested in recent developments in molecular and clinical aspects of cancer and radiation carcinogenesis. The objective of the School was to educate and train the young researchers about the theoretical and practical aspects of radiation carcinogenesis. The renowned faculties from India and aboard delivered expert lectures and conducted practical sessions during the school. The topics ranged from the basics of cancer and carcinogenesis; role of DNA damage and genomic instability in the mechanism of carcinogenesis; heavy metal radionuclides induced carcinogenesis; low-dose radiobiology and risk of cancer; ultraviolet (UV)-induced carcinogenesis; experimental models for carcinogenesis studies, and cancer incidence during cancer radiotherapy. During the practical session, demonstrations were arranged of techniques such as DNA damage, apoptosis, measurement of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, fluorescence in situ hybridization, animal model of UV carcinogenesis, and histopathological observations of various stages of oral cancer. This report presents a brief overview of the scientific and practical sessions of the school.
  2,324 242 1
Cancer research: Challenges and promise for individualized treatment
Shyam Kishore Shrivastava
April-June 2017, 8(2):91-92
  2,319 210 -
Retrospective analysis to assess the feasibility of escalated dose of nimotuzumab in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer
Nagraj Gururaj Huilgol, Ajit Nair, Sameer Chaudhari, Dilip Pawar
April-June 2017, 8(2):108-111
Introduction: Head and neck cancer (HNC) has large worldwide prevalence and accounts for almost 5% among all types of cancers. Nimotuzumab is a humanized anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody that has shown promising results in patients with HNC. The present retrospective case study aimed at investigating the response rate and adverse events (AEs) of a high dose of nimotuzumab in patients with HNC who are ineligible for platinum-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Patients with locally advanced HNC who refused chemotherapy or were ineligible for platinum-based chemotherapy were analyzed in the study. Patients were given nimotuzumab along with radiotherapy (RT). The duration of each treatment cycle was 6 weeks. About 200 mg nimotuzumab was administered, twice weekly for 6 weeks. The patients who received at least one treatment cycle of targeted therapy and accompanied regular follow-ups were assessed for response rate measurements. Results: A total of six patients were enrolled in the study. A response rate of 100% was observed in the patients who completed the treatment. Complete and partial response was 60% and 40%, respectively, in HNC patients at the end of treatment. Three patients were reported with Grade II mucositis. No Grade III or IV AEs were observed in the patients. Conclusion: High dose of nimotuzumab along with RT enhanced response rate in patients with HNC who are ineligible for platinum-based chemotherapy without producing any additional toxicity.
  1,969 190 -
Iodine-131 induces cell death by downregulation of antiapoptotic genes in MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells
Chandan Kumar, Grace Samuel
April-June 2017, 8(2):103-107
Aims: Radioiodine (131I) is the most common radionuclide which possesses favorable nuclear characteristics for targeted therapy in cancer management. There are several therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 131I used in clinics, but the basic mechanism describing the cause of induced cell death is limited in literature. Hence, the aim of the present study is to find a plausible mechanism of cellular toxicity and involvement of antiapoptotic gene in induction of cell death due to 131I. Materials and Methods: The effect of 131I on cell death was studied by incubating MCF-7 cell line with different amount of 131I radioactivity for 6 h followed by washing and extended the incubation for 48 h. Cells were harvested and cell viability was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and trypan blue dye uptake. Apoptosis study was carried out with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was carried out to find expression of antiapoptotic genes, viz., BCL-2 and BCLXL. Results: It was found that release of LDH was Dose and time dependent, and 35% cell death was estimated by trypan blue with 37 MBq of 131I radioactivity at 48 h of incubation. Enrichment factor of apoptotic DNA was 3.2 with 37 MBq of 131I at 48 h. Densitometric analysis of BCL-2 and BCLXLshowed that there is downregulation of genes expression, which confirmed apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: 131I induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line by the downregulation of antiapoptotic gene BCL-2 and BCLXLwhen exposed for longer time periods.
  1,753 177 -
Trichoblastic carcinoma of retroauricular region with intracranial and lung metastasis
Deepti Sharma, Garima Singh
April-June 2017, 8(2):112-113
Trichoblastic carcinoma is a rare skin malignancy which arises from the differentiation of primitive hair follicles. As trichoblastic carcinoma is very rare, the standard treatment protocol is yet to be established. Here, we present a rare case report of trichoblastic carcinoma of retroauricular region with intracranial extension and lung metastasis.
  1,492 129 -