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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 53-60

Perspectives on the role of bystander effect and genomic instability on therapy-induced secondary malignancy

1 Department of Human Genetics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Oncological Sciences, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36604, USA

Correspondence Address:
Venkatachalam Perumal
Department of Human Genetics, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_22_16

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Deviation from the orchestra of regulated cell division into unregulated and then result into the formation of tumor is known as carcinogenesis. While causes and hallmarks of many cancer types are well established, newer concepts on tumor cell response to treatment, challenges established therapeutic regime and drives into alternative toward the better management. The phenomena of therapeutics induced bystander response, and genomic instability on late effects of cancer therapy is emerging as a newer challenge. Bystander response is defined as the manifestation of radiation/chemotherapy drug signatures on the unexposed cells which are in the closer vicinity of the directly exposed; on the other hand, genomic instability is defined as the expression of radiation/chemotherapy drug signatures in the progeny of exposed cells. Unequivocally, existence of those phenomena has been demonstrated with many cell types (both in vitro and in vivo) followed by radiation and widely used chemotherapeutic drugs. Nevertheless, it is also revealed that the effects are variable and depend on dose, type of radiation/chemicals agents, experimental model, type of donor and recipient cells, and biomarkers adopted; moreover, to observe those effects, reactive oxygen species has been reported as leading mediators of those responses when compared to other molecules such as interleukins, cytokines, and inflammatory markers. Available data on those phenomena and our findings suggest that a role of therapeutic drugs induced bystander effects, and genomic instability on the development of secondary malignancy cannot be ruled out completely.

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