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   2016| January-March  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 23, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Magnetic hyperthermia therapy: An emerging modality of cancer treatment in combination with radiotherapy
Neena Girish Shetake, Murali M.S Balla, Amit Kumar, Badri Narain Pandey
January-March 2016, 7(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184606  
Magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) involves heat generation using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in response to an externally applied alternating current magnetic field. These MNPs can be specifically targeted to the tumor site for homogenous heating. Compared to MHT, conventional methods of HT cause heterogeneous heating of tumor and thus poor efficacy of cancer treatment. MHT has also been shown to effectively eliminate the highly chemo- and radio-resistant cancer stem cells in the tumor mass. Due to their diagnostic capability as well as heat-induced cancer cell killing ability, extensive research has been carried out to develop MNPs as potential cancer theranostic agent. The major focus of MNP research has been to design MNPs formulations for efficient targeting, increased colloidal stability, effective heat generation, and minimal inherent toxicity. A few recent MNPs formulations meet some of the required features and showed promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. HT applied through conventional modes has been combined with chemo- and radiotherapy, owing to its ability to increase oxygenation and drug supply due to vasodilation but has shown a limited success in clinic. However, a great hope has arisen from the MNPs to make combinatorial therapies more successful, not only because of the many advantages of MNPs mentioned but also due to their potential for targeted delivery of a range of anti-cancer drugs and radiosensitizing agents.
  3,752 596 7
Phytochemicals as modulators of ultraviolet-b radiation induced cellular and molecular events: A review
Thangaiyan Radhiga, Balupillai Agilan, Umar Muzaffer, Ramasamy Karthikeyan, Govindasamy Kanimozhi, VI Paul, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad
January-March 2016, 7(1):2-12
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184607  
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a very prominent environmental toxic agent. Particularly, UVB (280–320 nm – short wave) wavelength penetrates the epidermis and is completely absorbed in the upper dermis, whereas UVA (320–400 nm - long wave) penetrates to the deeper dermis. UVA is a relatively weak carcinogen than UVB because of its weak strength as a tumor initiating agent. UVB exposure elicits adverse effect which includes sunburn, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin and immunosuppression. Increased ozone depletion and modern lifestyle has increased the amount of UV exposure, and this consequently led to a surge in the incidence of skin cancer. UVB-irradiation acts as both tumor initiator and tumor promoter in animal models. UVB-initiated signal transduction pathways are believed to be responsible for tumor promotion effects. Variety of cellular changes, which includes activation of transcription factors and protein kinases were altered during acute and chronic UVB-exposure. All these events leads to skin cancer development involving DNA damage, inflammation, immunosuppression, epidermal hyperplasia, cell cycle dysregulation, depletion of antioxidant–defenses, and reactive oxygen species generation. An epidemiological study shows that human beings consuming varieties of vegetables and fruits are protected from UVB induced carcinogenesis. In the recent years, number of experimental evidences showed that natural nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals are vital targets for UVB-mediated cellular and molecular events and prevents cellular milieu from UVB mediated health effects. In this review, we have discussed the current progress in the study on UVB-mediated signaling that can be exploited as targets for phytochemicals.
  3,073 487 12
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Mass attenuation coefficient and its photon interaction derivables of some skeletal muscle relaxants
HC Manjunatha
January-March 2016, 7(1):18-26
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184608  
Context: The study of photon interactions with biological materials is essential in radiation medicine and biology, nuclear technology and space research, since radioactive sources are used. Aims: A study of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron density of some commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants. Materials and Methods: We have measured the mass attenuation some commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants such as tubocurarine chloride, gallamine triethiodide, pancuronium bromide, suxamethonium bromide and mephenesin for various gamma sources of energy ranging from 84keV to 1330 keV (170Tm, 57Co, 141Ce, 203Hg, 51Cr, 113Sn, 22Na, 137Cs, 60Co, 22Na and 60Co). The measured values agree with the theoretical values. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron density (Ne) of commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants for total and coherent, incoherent, photoelectric absorption, pair production in atomic and nuclear field photon interaction have been computed in the wide region 1keV to 100GeV using an accurate database of photon-interaction cross sections and the WinXCom program. Results: The significant variation of Zeff and Nel is due to the variations in the dominance of different interaction process in different energy regions. A comparison is also made with the single values of the Zeff and Nel provided by the program XMuDat. We have also calculated CT numbers, kerma values relative to air and dose rate for relaxants which are also not remaining constant with energy. Conclusions: The computed data of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron density and CT numbers in the low energy region helps in visualizing the image of the biological samples and precise accuracy in treating the inhomogenity of them in medical radiology. The calculated kerma values relative to air and dose rate for relaxants are useful in radiation medicine.
  2,367 246 2
CASE REPORT
Papillary carcinoma thyroid as a second malignant neoplasm following radiotherapy for medulloblastoma in childhood: A rare case report
Gaurav Chauhan, Kavita Saggar, Kamini Gupta, Aditi Gupta, Havanpreet Singh
January-March 2016, 7(1):27-30
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184609  
Second malignant neoplasm is a rare but dreaded late sequelae of the treated primary childhood malignancies. Surgical excision combined with radiochemotherapy represents the gold standard of therapy for medulloblastoma. The effectiveness of such a combined treatment has encouraged the use of radiotherapy even in young pediatric patients, in spite of the increased risk of a second radio-induced malignancy. Irradiation is the well-known risk factor for the development of benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Children are more exposed to this risk because their thyroid gland is more sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation. We report the case of a 20-year-old male who initially presented at the age of 2 years with a medulloblastoma and was treated with surgery and radiotherapy. The patient again presented 18 years after radiotherapy with bilateral neck masses which proved to be lymphadenopathy secondary to papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient also had multiple bilateral metastatic pulmonary nodules. Radio-induced thyroid tumors are well-recognized nosographic entities due to the particular sensitivity of this gland to ionizing radiations. However, only a few papers on radio-induced thyroid neoplasms after the central nervous system (CNS) irradiation have been published in the literature. We report an additional case of thyroid neoplasm following childhood CNS irradiation for the treatment of posterior fossa medulloblastoma and emphasize that clinicians should judiciously use the radiotherapy for treatment of childhood malignancies and also radiologists should be familiar with the long-term complications of antineoplastic therapies to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment.
  1,602 142 -
EDITORIAL
Dilemma of low-dose radiation effects: Extensive research needed
Kaushala Prasad Mishra
January-March 2016, 7(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184610  
  1,212 190 -