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ABSTRACTS OF ICRR-HHE 2016
International conference on radiation research: Impact on human health and environment (ICRR-HHE 2016) and first biennial meeting of society for radiation research 'Feb. 11-13, 2016'

February 2016, 7(5):2-56
  4,947 892 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Magnetic hyperthermia therapy: An emerging modality of cancer treatment in combination with radiotherapy
Neena Girish Shetake, Murali M.S Balla, Amit Kumar, Badri Narain Pandey
January-March 2016, 7(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184606  
Magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) involves heat generation using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in response to an externally applied alternating current magnetic field. These MNPs can be specifically targeted to the tumor site for homogenous heating. Compared to MHT, conventional methods of HT cause heterogeneous heating of tumor and thus poor efficacy of cancer treatment. MHT has also been shown to effectively eliminate the highly chemo- and radio-resistant cancer stem cells in the tumor mass. Due to their diagnostic capability as well as heat-induced cancer cell killing ability, extensive research has been carried out to develop MNPs as potential cancer theranostic agent. The major focus of MNP research has been to design MNPs formulations for efficient targeting, increased colloidal stability, effective heat generation, and minimal inherent toxicity. A few recent MNPs formulations meet some of the required features and showed promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. HT applied through conventional modes has been combined with chemo- and radiotherapy, owing to its ability to increase oxygenation and drug supply due to vasodilation but has shown a limited success in clinic. However, a great hope has arisen from the MNPs to make combinatorial therapies more successful, not only because of the many advantages of MNPs mentioned but also due to their potential for targeted delivery of a range of anti-cancer drugs and radiosensitizing agents.
  3,645 583 7
Ultraviolet radiation-induced carcinogenesis: Mechanisms and experimental models
Karthikeyan Ramasamy, Mohana Shanmugam, Agilan Balupillai, Kanimozhi Govindhasamy, Srithar Gunaseelan, Ganesan Muthusamy, Beualah Mary Robert, Rajendra Prasad Nagarajan
January-March 2017, 8(1):4-19
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.199301  
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a very prominent environmental toxic agent. UVR has been implicated in the initiation and progression of photocarcinogenesis. UVR exposure elicits numerous cellular and molecular events which include the generation of inflammatory mediators, DNA damage, epigenetic modifications, and oxidative damages mediated activation of signaling pathways. UVR-initiated signal transduction pathways are believed to be responsible for tumor promotion effects. UVR-induced carcinogenic mechanism has been well studied using various animal and cellular models. Human skin-derived dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and melanocytes served as excellent cellular model systems for the understanding of UVR-mediated carcinogenic events. Apart from this, scientists developed reconstituted three-dimensional normal human skin equivalent models for the study of UVR signaling pathways. Moreover, hairless mice such as SKH-1, devoid of Hr gene, served as a valuable model for experimental carcinogenesis. Scientists have also used transgenic mice and dorsal portion shaved Swiss albino mice for UVR carcinogenesis studies. In this review, we have discussed the current progress in the study on ultraviolet B (UVB)-mediated carcinogenesis and outlined appropriate experimental models for both ultraviolet A- and UVB-mediated carcinogenesis.
  3,504 556 10
DNA double-strand break repair in mammals
Monica Pandey, Sathees C Raghavan
April-June 2017, 8(2):93-97
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_18_17  
Failure in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) could result in various disorders in mammals including cancer. Among various exogenous agents, radiation is one of the primary causes for induction of DSBs. Homologous recombination, nonhomologous end-joining, and a less efficient microhomology-mediated end-joining are responsible for repair of DSBs to ensure the genomic integrity and stability. This review highlights DNA damage response (DDR) induced following various insults to the genome and how the DNA repair mechanisms have evolved to restore genomic integrity. We also briefly discuss the potential therapeutic targets associated with DDR and DSB repair and novel inhibitors developed against such targets and their well-defined mechanism of action, which may increase sensitivity to traditional radio- and chemo-therapeutic modalities.
  3,384 479 1
Phytochemicals as modulators of ultraviolet-b radiation induced cellular and molecular events: A review
Thangaiyan Radhiga, Balupillai Agilan, Umar Muzaffer, Ramasamy Karthikeyan, Govindasamy Kanimozhi, VI Paul, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad
January-March 2016, 7(1):2-12
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184607  
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a very prominent environmental toxic agent. Particularly, UVB (280–320 nm – short wave) wavelength penetrates the epidermis and is completely absorbed in the upper dermis, whereas UVA (320–400 nm - long wave) penetrates to the deeper dermis. UVA is a relatively weak carcinogen than UVB because of its weak strength as a tumor initiating agent. UVB exposure elicits adverse effect which includes sunburn, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin and immunosuppression. Increased ozone depletion and modern lifestyle has increased the amount of UV exposure, and this consequently led to a surge in the incidence of skin cancer. UVB-irradiation acts as both tumor initiator and tumor promoter in animal models. UVB-initiated signal transduction pathways are believed to be responsible for tumor promotion effects. Variety of cellular changes, which includes activation of transcription factors and protein kinases were altered during acute and chronic UVB-exposure. All these events leads to skin cancer development involving DNA damage, inflammation, immunosuppression, epidermal hyperplasia, cell cycle dysregulation, depletion of antioxidant–defenses, and reactive oxygen species generation. An epidemiological study shows that human beings consuming varieties of vegetables and fruits are protected from UVB induced carcinogenesis. In the recent years, number of experimental evidences showed that natural nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals are vital targets for UVB-mediated cellular and molecular events and prevents cellular milieu from UVB mediated health effects. In this review, we have discussed the current progress in the study on UVB-mediated signaling that can be exploited as targets for phytochemicals.
  2,933 466 11
EDITORIAL
Transition: Translation and a view of the future of radiation biology
Nagraj G Huilgol
February 2016, 7(5):1-1
  1,065 1,902 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Current status of radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome under advanced development
Vijay K Singh, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Paola T Santiago, Madison Simas, Briana K Hanlon, Melissa Garcia, Stephen Y Wise
January-March 2018, 9(1):13-27
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_3_18  
The availability of safe and effective radiation countermeasures for the military and civilian population represents a significant unmet medical need. To expedite the development of countermeasures for life-threating situations, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has implemented the “Animal Rule” which applies to the development and evaluation of drugs and biologics to reduce or prevent life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling agents where human efficacy trials are neither feasible nor ethical. In addition, the FDA has introduced several incentives (fast track, orphan drug status, and emergency use authorization [EUA]) to attract drug sponsors to develop such agents for human use. Repurposing is vital to make drugs available for life-threatening conditions. Drugs are commonly repurposed for new indications not originally envisioned. By repurposing a drug, it can be made available for human use much quicker, but this pathway also involves issues such as intellectual property rights as corporations are reluctant to expose their blockbuster pharmaceuticals to additional scientific scrutiny. Two radiomitigators for hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) (Neupogen and Neulasta) have been approved by the FDA through repurposing. The EUA is a legal means for the FDA to approve new drugs or new indications for the previously approved drugs for use during a declared emergency and is a valid way to expedite drug development. Several promising agents with and without FDA investigational new drug (IND) status for ARS are under advanced development. In the next few years, we expect that the FDA will approve a few radioprotectors for H-ARS as well as gastrointestinal ARS via Animal Rule.
  2,527 388 4
Understanding the basic role of glycocalyx during cancer
Yogendrakumar Harivansh Lahir
July-September 2016, 7(3):79-84
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.197974  
Metastasis or cancer is a functional, molecular and structural disorder which has been an unsolved and fatal mystery and leads to death in most of the individuals suffering from it in spite of the advances made in biomedical and oncological fields. Structurally a tissue consists of cells enclosed by glycocalyx (partially or completely), extracellular matrix incorporating lymphatic and mircovessels. There is a specific amount of glycocalyx sandwiched between extracellular cell matrix and cell membrane depending on the type of the tissue and cell and their location in the biosystems. The common constituents of glycocalyx include biomolecules such as glycolipids, glycoproteins, and oligosaccharides; the glycoproteins are trans-membrane proteins. Any impact due to the interaction between inter- and/or intra-cellular biomolecules or any expected xenobiotics affect extracellular matrix, glycocalyx, cell membrane, cell organelles; these are the prime targets for the investigation related to metastasis. Somehow or the other the glycocalyx has attracted relative less attention of the researchers. The various aspects of the prometastatic interactions involve ligand-receptors, integrins, and other cellular receptors; glycocalyx has its role in such interactions. There are changes in the physicochemical parameters of glycocalyx which affect the cell membrane adversely. These result in malfunctioning of cell signaling, cell proliferation, cell migration, etc. There have been relatively less reports on the structural and functional changes in glycocalyx specifically related to circulating tumor cells and the cancerous cells of organs such as ovary, breast tissue, lungs, and hepatic tissues. In this presentation, an effort is made to review and evaluate the changes in glycocalyx during such interactions between the glycocalyx and the prometastatic molecules.
  2,541 265 1
Radiation oxidative stress in cancer induction and prevention
Prabodha Kumar Meher, Kaushala Prasad Mishra
January-March 2017, 8(1):44-52
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_10_17  
Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation causes generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are implicated in the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Molecular steps involved in the transformation of normal cells to cancer cells have been enigmatic but generally believed to arise from aberration in cellular redox homeostasis. In normal cell function, a delicate balance is maintained between ROS generated in the metabolic process and level of endogenous antioxidant defense. ROS are known to regulate various cellular functions, such as cell division, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Cells experience oxidative stress when excess production of ROS occurs inside a cell upon exposure to external stressor agents. This redox imbalance affects the cellular functions due to DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations, alteration in signal transduction, and inhibition of apoptosis leading to induction of cancer and other diseases. Radiation-induced ROS are involved in initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. Therefore, detoxification of ROS by exogenous antioxidants including dietary polyphenols offers an important strategy for cancer prevention. Recent research results have shown that resistance of cancer stem cells to therapies is linked to low level of ROS. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo experiments have reported that radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced ROS in cytosol sensitize the tumor cells to death, resulting in tumor growth retardation. This review is an attempt to delineate mechanisms of ROS in carcinogenesis and prevention by dietary compounds. Natural polyphenols and dietary antioxidants hold potential to prevent cancer. Interventions in ROS-mediated signal alteration, apoptosis activation, and modulation of epigenetic processes may offer effective cancer prevention strategy.
  2,412 343 3
Ellagic acid radiosensitizes tumor cells by evoking apoptotic pathway
Vidhula R Ahire, KP Mishra
July-September 2016, 7(3):71-78
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.197973  
Cancer causes millions of deaths each year globally. In most patients, the cause of treatment failure is found associated with the resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The development of tumor cell resistance evokes multiple intracellular molecular pathways. In addition, the limitation in treatment outcome arises due to unintended cytotoxic effects of the synthetic anticancer drugs to normal cells and tissues. Considerable focus of research is, therefore, devoted to examine plant-based herbal compounds which may prove potential anticancer drug for developing effective cancer therapy. Research results from our laboratory have shown that ellagic acid (EA), a natural flavonoid displays enhanced tumor toxicity in combination with gamma radiation to many types of cancers in vitro as well as in vivo. Studies on the underlying mechanisms of toxicity suggest that EA employs the cellular signaling pathways in producing the observed effects. This paper gives an account of molecular mechanisms of EA-induced apoptosis process in tumor cytotoxicity. It is suggested that EA acts as a novel radiosensitizer for tumors and a radioprotector for normal cells which may offer a novel protocol for cancer treatment.
  2,264 260 3
EDITORIAL
Carcinogenic risk from low-dose radiation exposure is overestimated
Kaushala P Mishra
January-March 2017, 8(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_12_17  
  2,100 300 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Mass attenuation coefficient and its photon interaction derivables of some skeletal muscle relaxants
HC Manjunatha
January-March 2016, 7(1):18-26
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184608  
Context: The study of photon interactions with biological materials is essential in radiation medicine and biology, nuclear technology and space research, since radioactive sources are used. Aims: A study of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron density of some commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants. Materials and Methods: We have measured the mass attenuation some commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants such as tubocurarine chloride, gallamine triethiodide, pancuronium bromide, suxamethonium bromide and mephenesin for various gamma sources of energy ranging from 84keV to 1330 keV (170Tm, 57Co, 141Ce, 203Hg, 51Cr, 113Sn, 22Na, 137Cs, 60Co, 22Na and 60Co). The measured values agree with the theoretical values. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron density (Ne) of commonly used skeletal muscle relaxants for total and coherent, incoherent, photoelectric absorption, pair production in atomic and nuclear field photon interaction have been computed in the wide region 1keV to 100GeV using an accurate database of photon-interaction cross sections and the WinXCom program. Results: The significant variation of Zeff and Nel is due to the variations in the dominance of different interaction process in different energy regions. A comparison is also made with the single values of the Zeff and Nel provided by the program XMuDat. We have also calculated CT numbers, kerma values relative to air and dose rate for relaxants which are also not remaining constant with energy. Conclusions: The computed data of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron density and CT numbers in the low energy region helps in visualizing the image of the biological samples and precise accuracy in treating the inhomogenity of them in medical radiology. The calculated kerma values relative to air and dose rate for relaxants are useful in radiation medicine.
  2,124 220 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Tobacco-induced carcinogenesis and chemoprevention by some natural products
Debolina Pal, Subhayan Sur, Prosenjit Saha, Chinmay Kumar Panda
January-March 2017, 8(1):35-43
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_9_17  
Tobacco habit is one of the main etiological factors responsible for cancer in body's multiple organs due to the presence of numerous carcinogens. In different animal models, it was evident that the carcinogens could induce carcinogenesis in multiple organs depending on its route of exposure site (e.g., skin, oral cavity, and lung), metabolism (e.g., liver and lung), and excretion (e.g., lung and kidney). It was evident that the active carcinogen metabolites could induce cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, bind to DNA/RNA/proteins, thereby transforming the stem cell of the specific organs toward neoplasm. Different epidemiological studies including our own showed few natural compounds might reduce the risk of tobacco-induced carcinogenesis. The anticarcinogenic roles of crude extract as well as active compounds of such natural dietary ingredients were also evaluated by several in vivo animal models. Most of the active components have potential antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic roles. For better understanding, the roles of three different types of compounds were selected for this review 1. Tea polyphenols from Camellia sinensis: epigallocatechin gallate and theaflavin; 2. amarogentin from Swertia chirata; and 3. Eugenol from Syzygium aromaticum. Studies showed that three types of compounds could restrict the carcinogenesis in different organs at premalignant stages. This might be due to antioxidation and activation of detoxification system, inhibition of cancer initiating stem cell population, modulation of multiple cellular pathways associated with cell cycle, cell proliferation, and survival which ultimately lead to restrict tumor development at initiation/promotion stage.
  1,771 248 -
Histone variant H3.3 and its future prospects in cancer clinic
Divya Reddy, Sanjay Gupta
January-March 2017, 8(1):77-81
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_4_17  
Histone variant, H3.3 has been a continuous subject of interest in the field of chromatin studies due to its two distinguishing features. First, its incorporation into chromatin is replication-independent, unlike the replication-coupled deposition of its canonical counterparts H3.1/3.2. Second, H3.3 has been consistently associated with an active state of chromatin. Apart from this function research in the past few years has also revealed that H3.3 has a central role to play in maintaining the somatic cell identity, for efficient ultraviolet induce DNA damage repair and proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Further, the discovery of “driver mutations” on this variant has bought it to limelight in cancer biology to the extent that “oncohistone,” a new term has been coined for different mutants of H3.3. Here, we review the functional importance of H3.3 in the context of cancer.
  1,769 232 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Thyroid nodule prevalence among young residents in the evacuation area after fukushima daiichi nuclear accident: Results of preliminary analysis using the official data
Suminori Akiba, Athira Nandakumar, Kenta Higuchi, Mayumi Tsuji, Futoshi Uwatoko
October-December 2017, 8(4):174-179
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_42_17  
Introduction: The nuclear accidents at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant released more than 10 EBq (exabecquerel) of the radionuclides into the atmosphere. A primary health concern after the nuclear accident is the internal exposure of children to radioactive iodines, which are known to accumulate in the thyroid, and to cause neoplasm. Fortunately, studies conducted so far have shown that the thyroid doses from internal exposure to 131I were low, and therefore, any excess risk of thyroid cancer among residents is considered unlikely to be detected in the future. Data and Analysis: Approximately half a year after the accident, the Fukushima Health Management Survey was started. It includes the thyroid screening survey using ultrasonography and a program to estimate the individual radiation dose of residents and evacuees. Results and Discussions: The first-round thyroid survey, which was conducted during the period 2011–2013, covered 300,476 young residents, approximately 82% of residents eligible for the survey, and found thyroid nodules in 3990 examinees. The prevalence of nodules in the evacuation zone was similar to that in the nonevacuation zone. The second-round survey, which was conducted during the period 3–6 years after the accident, detected 3788 participants with thyroid nodules among 270,511 examinees (approximately 71% of eligible residents). The prevalence of thyroid nodules in the evacuation zone was significantly higher than that in the rest of area (relative risk = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 1.19, 1.45). Conclusion: Further studies are necessary to evaluate the scientific significance of present findings.
  1,783 179 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Mechanism of carcinogenesis after exposure of actinide radionuclides: Emerging concepts and missing links
Rakhee Yadav, Manjoor Ali, Amit Kumar, Badri N Pandey
January-March 2017, 8(1):20-34
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.199304  
Radiation carcinogenesis may be associated with external and/or internal sources of radiation exposure during accidental, occupational, or diagnostic/therapeutic conditions. Most of the radiation carcinogenic events are established after acute doses of low linear energy transfer external radiation. Moreover, the carcinogenic effects of internalized radioisotopes are also reported at their acute/chronic doses. In this regard, actinide radionuclides (like 238U, 239Pu, 232Th, and 241Am) are of great importance as fuel material or waste generated during nuclear power production. These radionuclides may result in incidence of cancer when internalized at high doses while accidental or occupation exposure. Even though the basic carcinogenic mechanism after external or internal radiation exposure remains the same, the magnitude of systemic or target specific radiation effects may vary in these radiation exposure conditions. The majority of the studies investigating biological, carcinogenic, and other health effects of actinide radionuclides are limited only up to quantification of these effects without much mechanistic insights. Moreover, the radiobiological processes, such as bystander effect, genomic instability, and adaptive response, governing the cellular radiosensitivity of targeted/nontargeted cells also need to be studied in the context of carcinogenesis after actinide radionuclides internalization. The review aims to highlight the emerging radiobiological concepts and missing links about actinide radionuclides-induced carcinogenesis. In addition, an overview has been presented about biological and health effects of major actinide radionuclides.
  1,708 226 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of radiological risk parameters associated with some selected rivers around oil mineral producing sites in Abia state, Nigeria due to gross alpha and beta radiations
Paschal Ikenna Enyinna, Francis C Uzochukwu
April-June 2016, 7(2):50-56
Context: The study of gross alpha and beta radiation in environmental components and water bodies in particular is very crucial to the environmental, radiation and medical Physicist as this helps to promote good water quality and environmental hygiene. Aim: This research work understudied the radiological risk parameters due to gross alpha and beta radiations associated with three selected rivers around crude oil production sites in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Gross alpha and beta activities were computed for the three rivers based on analytical measurements carried out using a well-calibrated IN-20 model gas-flow proportional counter. Radiological risk parameters were computed from the activity concentrations which included; annual effective dose equivalent of radiation from ingested water (AEDE), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). Results: The mean of the total AEDE due to the sum of alpha and beta radiations for the three rivers are 0.868 ± 0.221 mSv/y, 1.008 ± 0.156 mSv/y, and 0.917 ± 0.214 mSv/y; and are above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit of 0.1 mSv/y. The mean of the total AGDE is 4.048 ± 1.063 mSv/y, 4.756 ± 0.739 mSv/y, and 4.295 ± 1.026 mSv/y; and are above the world average limit of 0.3 mSv/y. The mean of the total ELCR are (3.038 ± 0.774) × 10−3 , (3.529 ± 0.547) × 10−3 , and (3.210 ± 0.748) × 10−3 , and are above the world average limit of 0.29 × 10−3 . Conclusion: Most values of ELCR computed in this work are >6.0 × 10−4 estimated to be the risk of fatal and weighted nonfatal health conditions over a lifetime (70 years) derived from the radiation dose of 0.1 mSv/y (WHO permissible limit for drinking water). Drinking water from these surveyed sources could impact negatively on the end users.
  1,756 121 -
EDITORIAL
Cancer research: Challenges and promise for individualized treatment
Shyam Kishore Shrivastava
April-June 2017, 8(2):91-92
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_26_17  
  1,707 127 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancers: In which direction are we heading?
Punita Lal, Mranalini Verma, KJ Maria Das, Shaleen Kumar
April-June 2016, 7(2):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.191702  
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the treatment modalities, which most of the time used in the treatment of most head and neck cancers with/without chemotherapy either as a definitive treatment or adjuvant/postoperated or for symptoms palliation, but it is always accompanied by late sequelae such as xerostomia and dysphagia. These two major sequelae have a significant effect on patient's quality of life even after cure of disease. However, with the advancement of modern techniques such as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) which effectively spares the parotid glands has a significant effect, proven in randomized trials, for xerostomia as well as dysphagia. IMRT to spare dysphagia and aspiration related structure ( DARSs) has also been studied extensively. To improve the results further, nowadays, we focus on use of functional imaging at the time of RT planning and/or use of image guidance for the adaptation during RT treatment as well as focus on to reduce neurocognition effects of treatment by sparing brain.
  1,593 227 -
TECHNICAL REPORT
Modified comet assays for the detection of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and oxidative base damages
Ganesan Muthusamy, Agilan Balupillai, Kanimozhi Govindasamy, Karthikeyan Ramasamy, Veeramani Kandan Ponniresan, Illiyas Magbool Malla, Rajendra Prasad Nagarajan
January-March 2017, 8(1):82-86
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.199312  
The comet assay (also known as single-cell gel electrophoresis) is a technique for the detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual cell. It is a versatile, relatively simple to perform and sensitive method. Although most investigations make use of its ability to measure DNA single-strand breaks, modifications to the method allow detection of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), crosslinks, base damage, and apoptotic nuclei. Many investigators also interested in examining the DNA damage as a function of time after exposure to a known genotoxic agent. Here, we present a procedure of comet assay for the detection of DNA strand breaks, base damages, and CPDs that can be used to measure DNA damage during toxicity, oxidative stress, and ultraviolet radiation exposure and it can be applied in human toxicological biomonitoring scenarios.
  1,586 233 6
REVIEW ARTICLES
Male breast cancer: An overview
Deepti Sharma, Garima Singh
April-June 2017, 8(2):98-102
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_21_17  
Male breast cancer (MBC) is extremely rare, with an incidence of about 1% but the incidence has increased over the past 25 years. Most data on MBC come from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for MBC is not known. In the present article, we reviewed MBC and its risk factors, recommendations for screening and diagnosis, and management of patients with MBC.
  1,548 209 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
An audit of setup reproducibility in radiotherapy of head and neck cancers
Mranalini Verma, Abdul Aziz Sait, SK Senthil Kumar, KJ Maria Das, Punita Lal, Shaleen Kumar
July-September 2016, 7(3):85-89
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.197975  
Background: The use of a customized immobilization thermoplastic mask is essential to compute clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to audit setup reproducibility in head and neck cancers (HNCs) since commencing an intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) program. Patients and Methods: Patients for IMRT of HNC were immobilized using either a plain "S" type mask ("S") or with a customized reenforced support at nasion and chin ("S"-NC) or an extended "U" type mask ("U"- NC), for head (H) and neck (N) regions, following radiotherapy planning contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans used to generate digital reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) at 0° (anteroposterior [A-P]) and 270° (lateral) on which match structures were contoured. Orthogonal MV portal images (PIs), A-P, and lateral were obtained. PIs were matched with the DRRs to obtain the setup variations, and the systemic (∑) and random errors (σ) to calculate PTV margins using the van Herk formula (2.5∑ +0.7σ). Results: Thirty-three patients provided 226 paired PIs with matching done separately for HNC regions. PTV margins for mediolateral, A-P, and craniocaudal directions for the head region were 3, 4, and 5 mm for "S"; 3, 4, and 3 mm for "S"-NC; and 3, 2, and 2 mm for extended "U"- NC type masks, respectively. For neck region, PTV margins were 4, 8, and 5 mm for "S"; 3, 5, and 3 mm for "S"-NC; and 4, 5, and 2 mm for extended "U"- NC type masks. Conclusions: These audits provide the necessary confidence to decrease population-based CTV to PTV margins.
  1,556 183 2
CASE REPORT
Papillary carcinoma thyroid as a second malignant neoplasm following radiotherapy for medulloblastoma in childhood: A rare case report
Gaurav Chauhan, Kavita Saggar, Kamini Gupta, Aditi Gupta, Havanpreet Singh
January-March 2016, 7(1):27-30
DOI:10.4103/0973-0168.184609  
Second malignant neoplasm is a rare but dreaded late sequelae of the treated primary childhood malignancies. Surgical excision combined with radiochemotherapy represents the gold standard of therapy for medulloblastoma. The effectiveness of such a combined treatment has encouraged the use of radiotherapy even in young pediatric patients, in spite of the increased risk of a second radio-induced malignancy. Irradiation is the well-known risk factor for the development of benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Children are more exposed to this risk because their thyroid gland is more sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation. We report the case of a 20-year-old male who initially presented at the age of 2 years with a medulloblastoma and was treated with surgery and radiotherapy. The patient again presented 18 years after radiotherapy with bilateral neck masses which proved to be lymphadenopathy secondary to papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient also had multiple bilateral metastatic pulmonary nodules. Radio-induced thyroid tumors are well-recognized nosographic entities due to the particular sensitivity of this gland to ionizing radiations. However, only a few papers on radio-induced thyroid neoplasms after the central nervous system (CNS) irradiation have been published in the literature. We report an additional case of thyroid neoplasm following childhood CNS irradiation for the treatment of posterior fossa medulloblastoma and emphasize that clinicians should judiciously use the radiotherapy for treatment of childhood malignancies and also radiologists should be familiar with the long-term complications of antineoplastic therapies to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment.
  1,529 133 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Perspectives on the role of bystander effect and genomic instability on therapy-induced secondary malignancy
Venkatachalam Perumal, M Chinnadurai, Venkateswarlu Raavi, Karthik Kanagaraj, V Shangamithra, Solomon F D Paul
January-March 2017, 8(1):53-60
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_22_16  
Deviation from the orchestra of regulated cell division into unregulated and then result into the formation of tumor is known as carcinogenesis. While causes and hallmarks of many cancer types are well established, newer concepts on tumor cell response to treatment, challenges established therapeutic regime and drives into alternative toward the better management. The phenomena of therapeutics induced bystander response, and genomic instability on late effects of cancer therapy is emerging as a newer challenge. Bystander response is defined as the manifestation of radiation/chemotherapy drug signatures on the unexposed cells which are in the closer vicinity of the directly exposed; on the other hand, genomic instability is defined as the expression of radiation/chemotherapy drug signatures in the progeny of exposed cells. Unequivocally, existence of those phenomena has been demonstrated with many cell types (both in vitro and in vivo) followed by radiation and widely used chemotherapeutic drugs. Nevertheless, it is also revealed that the effects are variable and depend on dose, type of radiation/chemicals agents, experimental model, type of donor and recipient cells, and biomarkers adopted; moreover, to observe those effects, reactive oxygen species has been reported as leading mediators of those responses when compared to other molecules such as interleukins, cytokines, and inflammatory markers. Available data on those phenomena and our findings suggest that a role of therapeutic drugs induced bystander effects, and genomic instability on the development of secondary malignancy cannot be ruled out completely.
  1,459 201 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Mobile phone use and cancer: Does dose really matter?
SMJ Mortazavi, Kaushala P Mishra
October-December 2017, 8(4):165-167
DOI:10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_39_17  
The past decades have witnessed rapid evolution of telecommunication technology and wireless devices. Due to these rapid advances, cell phone usage has remarkably increased the level of human exposure to radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs). In the past, it was widely believed that, RF-EMF, in contrast to ionizing radiation, does not have enough energy for ionizing atoms and hence does not cause DNA damage which can lead to cancer. However, substantial evidence now indicates that RF-EMFs increase the reactive oxygen species production and DNA damages which play an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. Currently, there is no widely accepted answer to this question whether there is a relationship between exposure to RF-EMFs from cell phones and cancer incidence and mortality. Although it seems that this issue is a long-term unsolved problem, new studies have raised new concerns over the safety of mobile phones. Mortazavi have previously studied the health effects of cellular phones, mobile base stations, and Wi-Fi. They have also reviewed reports claiming no link between exposure to RF and brain cancer. They found that in many cases there were large errors and/or major shortcomings in these articles. They have also reported that current controversies may be caused by the key parameter of the large difference in the magnitude of exposures to RF-EMFs in different studies. In this light, in a similar pattern with ionizing radiation, a nonlinear J-shaped dose–response relationship for the carcinogenesis of nonionizing RF-EMF is introduced.
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