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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2018
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-64

Online since Monday, January 22, 2018

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Global health security: Radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome p. 1
L Andrew Huff, Ayodele O Olabisi, Vijay K Singh
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Prophylactic strategies to minimize the effect of whole body irradiation on hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and respiratory system leading to morbidity/mortality in animals p. 4
Manju Lata Gupta, Savita Verma
Increase in radionuclide application has gone far and wide in the last many decades; though its usage has benefited the society at large, however occasional unplanned exposure to radiation (terrorist/accidental) has also troubled human life. Exposure of humankind to nuclear disaster, accidental and natural background radiation exposure, has created the need to develop complete understanding of the subject and preparedness for having safe countermeasures. In whole-body radiation exposure scenario, all the three organs are responsible for leading the animal to its death; however, hematopoietic (HP) organ is the first to collapse followed by gastrointestinal (GI) and respiratory systems. Radiation-induced basic damage in these organs follows more or less similar pattern. Derangement starts with radiation-induced reactive oxygen species causing damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins and disturbing their regulatory pathways. However, damage in HP and GI is more rapid and severe due to the presence of highly radiosensitive multipotent stem cells essential to meet the need of high cell turnover rate in these organs. To overcome radiation-induced damage to these vital organs, serious efforts are continued globally to find safe remedial measure.
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Current status of radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome under advanced development p. 13
Vijay K Singh, Oluseyi O Fatanmi, Paola T Santiago, Madison Simas, Briana K Hanlon, Melissa Garcia, Stephen Y Wise
The availability of safe and effective radiation countermeasures for the military and civilian population represents a significant unmet medical need. To expedite the development of countermeasures for life-threating situations, the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has implemented the “Animal Rule” which applies to the development and evaluation of drugs and biologics to reduce or prevent life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling agents where human efficacy trials are neither feasible nor ethical. In addition, the FDA has introduced several incentives (fast track, orphan drug status, and emergency use authorization [EUA]) to attract drug sponsors to develop such agents for human use. Repurposing is vital to make drugs available for life-threatening conditions. Drugs are commonly repurposed for new indications not originally envisioned. By repurposing a drug, it can be made available for human use much quicker, but this pathway also involves issues such as intellectual property rights as corporations are reluctant to expose their blockbuster pharmaceuticals to additional scientific scrutiny. Two radiomitigators for hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) (Neupogen and Neulasta) have been approved by the FDA through repurposing. The EUA is a legal means for the FDA to approve new drugs or new indications for the previously approved drugs for use during a declared emergency and is a valid way to expedite drug development. Several promising agents with and without FDA investigational new drug (IND) status for ARS are under advanced development. In the next few years, we expect that the FDA will approve a few radioprotectors for H-ARS as well as gastrointestinal ARS via Animal Rule.
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Evaluation of cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in cultured human lymphocytes p. 28
Ravindra M Samarth, Tooba Khan, Shweta Srivas, Pradyumna K Mishra, Rajnarayan R Tiwari
Aim: The present study was aimed to examine and evaluate the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by different doses of cyclophosphamide (CP) in normal healthy cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and colony formation assay (plating efficiency [PE] and survival fraction), respectively. Results: It has been observed that CP (1, 2.5, and 5 μg/ml)) induced a dose-dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei frequencies in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocyte as compared to normal. A significant increase was observed in the percentage of aberrant cells and dicentrics/exchanges at 1 and 2.5 μg/ml CP and aberrant cells, breaks, fragments, and dicentrics/exchanges at 5/μg/ml CP. A dose-dependent decrease in values of MI and nuclear division index was also observed in CP-treated group. The frequency of micronuclei in binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase. In colony formation assay, PE and surviving fraction values showed significant (P < 0.001) and dose-dependent decrease in the CP treatment groups. Conclusion: The results of present study suggest that CP has genotoxic and cytotoxic effect on cultured human lymphocytes.
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Invited Lectures p. 33

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Oral and Poster Presentation p. 48

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