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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2020
Volume 11 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 45-68

Online since Tuesday, June 23, 2020

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Near-infrared-responsive silver-capped magnetic nanoclusters for cancer therapy p. 45
Amit Tewari, Ruby Gupta, Deepika Sharma
Aim: Near-infrared (NIR)-based photothermal therapy (PTT) has been proposed as a prospective adjuvant to traditional chemotherapy. The present work aims to study the impact of silver-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a PTT agent against multiple cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Silver-coated magnetic nanoclusters (Ag-MNCs) were synthesized by a modified method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. Its effect as an agent for NIR-based PTT was assessed on four different human cell lines, namely glioblastoma cell line U-87 MG, osteosarcoma MG-63, lung carcinoma A549, and triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 by irradiation with 750 nm NIR laser for 10 min. Cellular damage was assessed in terms of MTT and cell cycle analysis and visualized by confocal microscopy. Results: The Ag-MNCs were successfully generated and exhibited excellent hyperthermic rise when exposed to NIR laser. A reduction of more than 60% of the cells was observed in the MTT assay. Confocal microscopy also confirmed significant nuclear damage to cells exposed to PTT in the presence of Ag-MNCs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that the Ag-MNCs have an excellent hyperthermic profile and as the test results indicate that it can be utilized as an agent for NIR-based PTT against various types of cancer cells.
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Retrospective analysis of incidence of gallbladder cancer in North-Western India over 5 years p. 52
Guncha Maheshwari, Vansh Arora, Aditya Dhanawat, Shankar Lal Jakhar, Neeti Sharma, Harvindra Singh Kumar
Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is one of the leading cancers among gastrointestinal malignancies. GBC occurs more frequently in females worldwide. There are very few studies on the incidence of GBC in the state of Rajasthan. The present study evaluates its temporal variation and area-wise distribution. Materials and Methods: Five-year retrospective data on GBC incidence were obtained from Hospital-Based Cancer Registry of Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Bikaner, from January 2014 to December 2018. Linear regression was applied to determine the trend of GBC incidence over these 5 years. District- and tehsil-wise distribution of patients was also analyzed. Results: Of 31,553 cases registered at RCC, Bikaner, from January 2014 to December 2018, there were 1199 cases of GBC accounting for 3.8% of the total. Among these, there were 333 males and 866 females which contributed approximately 1.8% and 6.4% of all male and female cancer cases, respectively. The median age at the diagnosis of GBC was 60 years in both the sexes. Linear regression analysis showed an increasing trend of GBC incidence over 5 years. The highest incidence rate was found in the districts of Sri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, and Bikaner, with most patients coming from Ganganagar and Suratgarh tehsils of Sri Ganganagar district. Conclusion: GBC cases have shown an increasing trend in the past 5 years in Rajasthan with a higher incidence in the North-Western districts irrigated by canal water. There is a need to correlate the water chemistry and find out solutions for reducing the risk of GBC in future.
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Computed tomography texture-based radiomics analysis as a predictor of response in head-and-neck cancer treated with chemoradiation and hyperthermia p. 56
Nagraj Huilgol, Balaji Ganeshan, Gopal Pemmaraju, Anand Parab, Anuradha Singh
Aim: In this pilot retrospective study, we aim to assess the ability of computed tomography (CT) texture-based radiomics analysis to predict the response in locally advanced head-and-neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiation and hyperthermia. Materials and Methods: Patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer who were treated with multiple modalities of chemoradiation and hyperthermia or radiation with hyperthermia between January 2018 and December 2019 were analyzed. The initial response was scored as complete response (CR), partial response, no response, or progressive disease. CT representing central core of the tumor, and 2 cm on either pole was segmented. These segmented sections of CT scans were analyzed on TexRAD software. Results: A total of 25 patients' data were analyzed, of which 15 are males, and most of the patients had Stage III or IV disease. Eleven patients received ≥10 sittings of hyperthermia. Only those who had CR 16 patients were included as responders and the rest as nonresponders (NRs). A higher kurtosis value is associated with non responders. Receiver operating characteristics further demonstrated kurtosis at fine texture scale ≥1.29 suggested NR. A total number of pixels of the center core is a significant differentiator between CR and NR (P = 0.039). Similarly, the mean density of the top section is a significant differentiator (P = 0.044). A higher mean density is indicative of NR. A higher composite score is associated with NR. Conclusion: Texture-based radiomics analysis on CT is an inexpensive, noninvasive addition based on imaging for prognostication potentially acting as an imaging biomarker. A composite score – a new paradigm as illustrated in this article demonstrates promise in assessing the response in head-and-neck cancer patients treated with hyperthermia in addition to radiation or chemotherapy, which needs to be further confirmed in a larger, prospective study.
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Dose received by external genital organs during preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer patients p. 62
Jyotiman Nath, Gautam Sarma, Bhaveshwar Yadav, Partha Pratim Medhi, Apurba Kumar Kalita, Mouchumee Bhattacharyya
Introduction: Preoperative radiotherapy, followed by surgery, is a commonly used approach for locally advanced rectal and colorectal cancer. The external genitalia receive a certain dose of radiation, which may be attributed to long-term sexual dysfunction in these patients. The aim of this study is to find out the dose received by external genital organs in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively 25 computed tomography (CT) sets of consecutive rectal cancer patients who received preoperative radiotherapy were included. External genital organ contouring was done as per the proposed guidelines given by Brooks et al. Standard radiotherapy plans with three-field wedged portal were run in all the CT sets using 6 MV photons in eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The total dose prescribed was 50.4 Gy in 28 daily fractions. Dose received by external genitalia were recorded. Results: Various dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters relating to the dose received by the genitalia were recorded. In the case of male patients, there was no statistically significant difference of values in between supine and prone position except for V40 (%), P = 0.027. In the case of female patients, various DVH values are almost the same in both supine and prone positions (P > 0.05). Conclusion: External genital organs receive a significant radiation dose when treated with standard three-field wedged technique. Therefore, we suggest that the young, sexually active patients may be treated with better conformal techniques to reduce the radiation dose received by the external genitals as low as possible.
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Squamous cell carcinoma of eyelid treated successfully with radiotherapy in a nonagenarian p. 67
Rituparna Biswas, Anirban Halder, Dipanwita Biswas
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