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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 44-52

Radiation oxidative stress in cancer induction and prevention


1 School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, MATS University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
2 BM International Research Center, Jain Vishwa Bharati Institute (Deemed University), Ladun, Rajastan; Ex Bhabha Atomic Research Center; Foundation for Education and Research, Mumbai, Maharastra, India

Correspondence Address:
Kaushala Prasad Mishra
BM International Research Center, Jain Vishwa Bharati Institute (Deemed University), Ladun, Rajastan; Ex Bhabha Atomic Research Center; Foundation for Education and Research, Mumbai, Maharastra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrcr.jrcr_10_17

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Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation causes generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are implicated in the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Molecular steps involved in the transformation of normal cells to cancer cells have been enigmatic but generally believed to arise from aberration in cellular redox homeostasis. In normal cell function, a delicate balance is maintained between ROS generated in the metabolic process and level of endogenous antioxidant defense. ROS are known to regulate various cellular functions, such as cell division, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Cells experience oxidative stress when excess production of ROS occurs inside a cell upon exposure to external stressor agents. This redox imbalance affects the cellular functions due to DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations, alteration in signal transduction, and inhibition of apoptosis leading to induction of cancer and other diseases. Radiation-induced ROS are involved in initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. Therefore, detoxification of ROS by exogenous antioxidants including dietary polyphenols offers an important strategy for cancer prevention. Recent research results have shown that resistance of cancer stem cells to therapies is linked to low level of ROS. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo experiments have reported that radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced ROS in cytosol sensitize the tumor cells to death, resulting in tumor growth retardation. This review is an attempt to delineate mechanisms of ROS in carcinogenesis and prevention by dietary compounds. Natural polyphenols and dietary antioxidants hold potential to prevent cancer. Interventions in ROS-mediated signal alteration, apoptosis activation, and modulation of epigenetic processes may offer effective cancer prevention strategy.


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